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Components of Arabidopsis Defense- and Ethylene-Signaling Pathways Regulate Susceptibility to Cauliflower mosaic virus by Restricting Long-Distance Movement

    Authors and Affiliations
    • Andrew J. Love 1
    • Valérie Laval 1
    • Chiara Geri 1 2
    • Janet Laird 1
    • A. Deri Tomos 3
    • Mark A. Hooks 3
    • Joel J. Milner 1

      Published Online:

      We analyzed the susceptibility of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling to infection by Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Mutants cpr1-1 and cpr5-2, in which SA-dependent defense signaling is activated constitutively, were substantially more resistant than the wild type to systemic infection, implicating SA signaling in defense against CaMV. However, SA-deficient NahG, sid2-2, eds5-1, and pad4-1 did not show enhanced susceptibility. A cpr5 eds5 double mutant also was resistant, suggesting that resistance in cpr5 may function partially independently of SA. Treatment of cpr5 and cpr5 eds5, but not cpr1, with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of alternative oxidase, partially restored susceptibility to wild-type levels. Mutants etr1-1, etr1-3, and ein2-1, and two mutants with lesions in ET/JA-mediated defense, eds4 and eds8, also showed reduced virus susceptibility, demonstrating that ET-dependent responses also play a role in susceptibility. We used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing CaMV recombinant to monitor virus movement. In mutants with reduced susceptibility, cpr1-1, cpr5-2, and etr1-1, CaMV-GFP formed local lesions similar to the wild type, but systemic spread was almost completely absent in cpr1 and cpr5 and was substantially reduced in etr1-1. Thus, mutations with enhanced systemic acquired resistance or compromised ET signaling show diminished long-distance virus movement.