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First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus in Echium candicans in France

    Authors and Affiliations
    • L. Cardin , INRA, URIH Phytopathologie, BP167, F-06903 Sophia-Antipolis cedex, France
    • B. Moury , INRA, Station de Pathologie Végétale, Domaine St Maurice, BP94, F-84143 Montfavet cedex, France

      Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-91-11-1516C

      Echium candicans (Linn.) Herb. Banks (Pride of Madeira or Viper's Bugloss), family Boraginaceae, is a perennial shrub used in gardens for the ornamental quality of its deep blue inflorescences, especially in coastal areas near the Mediterranean Sea. Mosaic symptoms were observed in leaves of E. candicans in the Alpes Maritimes Department of southeastern France, St Jean Cap Ferrat in 1994, Menton in 2002, and Antibes in 2005. Symptoms exhibited in a range of inoculated plants including Nicotiana tabacum cvs. Xanthi and Samsun, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, Vigna unguiculata cv. Black, and Cucumis sativus cv. Poinsett were typical of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Occurrence of CMV in one sample from each of the three localities was confirmed by the observation of isometric particles (approximately 30 nm) with the electron microscope in crude sap preparations from the infected plants, positive reactions in double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA to polyclonal antibodies raised against CMV (1), and the nonpersistent transmission of the virus from infected Xanthi to virus-free Xanthi plants by Myzus persicae. In double-immunodiffusion analysis, the three isolates were shown to belong to the CMV subgroup II (1,2). To determine if CMV was responsible for the symptoms observed, the isolate from Antibes was multiplied in Xanthi plants after isolation from local lesions on V. unguiculata and mechanically inoculated to 3-year-old plants of E. candicans tested to be free from CMV before the mechanical inoculation. One month after inoculation, mild mosaic symptoms were observed in young leaves and CMV was detected by DAS-ELISA in 10 of 10 inoculated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV in E. candicans.

      References: (1) J.-C. Devergne and L. Cardin. Ann. Phytopathol. 7:225, 1975. (2) M. J. Roossinck. J. Virol. 76:3382, 2002.