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Phytophthora spp. Associated with Forest Soils in Eastern and North-Central U.S. Oak Ecosystems

    Authors and Affiliations
    • Y. Balci
    • S. Balci
    • J. Eggers
    • W. L. MacDonald , West Virginia University, Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, 1090 South Agricultural Sciences Building, Morgantown 26506
    • J. Juzwik , United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN 55108
    • R. P. Long , USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Delaware, OH 43015
    • K. W. Gottschalk , USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Morgantown, WV 26505

      Published Online:

      A survey of soils associated with oak species was conducted in 2003 and 2004 in Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin to investigate the occurrence of Phytophthora spp. Soils taken from around the base of healthy and declining oak trees were flooded with H2O and Quercus robur leaflets were used as bait for Phytophthora spp. From 829 soil samples collected near trees, 21% were positive for Phytophthora spp., with 55% of the 125 sites surveyed yielding a Phytophthora sp. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most frequently isolated species, representing 69.4% of the Phytophthora-infested sites surveyed. Other species, in decreasing order of isolation frequency were Phytophthora sp. 2, P. citricola, P. europaea, P. cambivora, P. quercina-like isolates, and Phytophthora sp. 1. No significant association was found between the presence of Phytophthora organisms and site characteristics such as latitude, elevation, soil pH, or the crown condition of the trees. However, in P. cinnamomi-infested sites, a significant association was found with the deteriorating crown status of Q. alba and the presence of P. cinnamomi. The absence of P. cinnamomi above the 40°N latitude range also was noteworthy.