Two Mutations in β-Tubulin 2 Gene Associated with Thiophanate-Methyl Resistance in Colletotrichum cereale Isolates from Creeping Bentgrass in Mississippi and Alabama
- Joseph R. Young
- Maria Tomaso-Peterson , Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State 39762
- Karla de la Cerda
- Francis P. Wong , Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside 92521
Turfgrass anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum cereale (≡C. graminicola), has become a common disease of creeping bentgrass putting greens during the summer in Mississippi and Alabama over the last 15 years. Thiophanate-methyl is a single-site mode-of-action fungicide applied to control C. cereale. In vitro bioassays were performed to evaluate the sensitivity of 103 isolates to thiophanate-methyl concentrations ranging from 0.039 to 10 μg/ml. Eighty-three isolates were collected from creeping bentgrass in Mississippi and Alabama that had been exposed to thiophanate-methyl. An additional 20 isolates were included from nonexposed turfgrasses. Radial colony growth in amended media was relative to nonamended media for all in vitro bioassays. With thiophanate-methyl at 10 μg/ml, relative growth of exposed isolates ranged from 77.5 to 130.7% with a mean of 99.3% compared with nonexposed, baseline isolates that ranged from 0.0 to 48.7% with a mean of 20.4%. A representative sample of thiophanate-methyl-exposed and nonexposed isolates was used to determine the mechanism of resistance by comparing amino acid sequences of the β-tubulin 2 protein. All of the thiophanate-methyl-exposed isolates that were sequenced had a point mutation resulting in substitutions from glutamic acid to alanine at position 198 or from phenylalanine to tyrosine at position 200 of the β-tubulin 2 protein. These amino acid substitutions in C. cereale isolates from Mississippi and Alabama appear to confer resistance to thiophanate-methyl and differ from those reported previously for this pathogen.