Short Communication

A Revised Nomenclature for ToxA Haplotypes Across Multiple Fungal Species

    Authors and Affiliations
    • Reem Aboukhaddour1
    • Mohamed Hafez1
    • Megan McDonald2
    • Caroline S. Moffat3
    • Sudhir Navathe4
    • Timothy L. Friesen5 6
    • Stephen E. Strelkov7
    • Richard P. Oliver8
    • Kar-Chun Tan3
    • Zhaohui Liu6
    • Paula M. Moolhuijzen3
    • Huyen Phan3
    • Pao Theen See3
    • Peter S. Solomon9
    1. 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research and Development Center, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
    2. 2School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, Edgbaston, Birmingham, U.K.
    3. 3Centre for Crop Disease and Management, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
    4. 4Agharkar Research Institute, Department Science and Technology, Govt. of India, Pune, 411004, India
    5. 5USDA-ARS, Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Fargo, ND 58102-2765, U.S.A.
    6. 6Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, U.S.A.
    7. 7Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    8. 8School of Bioscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K.
    9. 9Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University ACT, Australia

    ToxA is one of the most studied proteinaceous necrotrophic effectors produced by plant pathogens. It has been identified in four pathogens (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Parastagonospora nodorum, Parastagonospora pseudonodorum [formerly Parastagonospora avenaria f. sp. tritici], and Bipolaris sorokiniana) causing leaf spot diseases on cereals worldwide. To date, 24 different ToxA haplotypes have been identified. Some P. tritici-repentis and related species also express ToxB, another small protein necrotrophic effector. We present here a revised and standardized nomenclature for these effectors, which could be extended to other poly-haplotypic genes found across multiple species.

    Literature Cited