Published Online:

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum dominated in triticale and rye. The nontoxigenic M. nivale/majus were present in significant amounts in all cereal species. Wheat and barley samples from 1957 to 1996 exhibited no or very low amounts of F. graminearum, indicating a recent increase of this pathogen. Biomass and mycotoxin data exhibited good correlations between Fusarium spp. and their corresponding mycotoxins under field conditions.