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First Report of Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Chinese Bean Tree in China

    Affiliations
    Authors and Affiliations
    • B. Z. Fu , Key Laboratory for Quality Control of Characteristic Fruits and Vegetables of Hubei Province, College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China 432000 and College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China 650224
    • M. Yang , College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China 650224
    • G. Y. Li , Key Laboratory for Quality Control of Characteristic Fruits and Vegetables of Hubei Province, College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China 432000
    • J. R. Wu
    • J. Z. Zhang
    • C. Z. Han , College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China 650224

      Chinese bean tree, Catalpa fargesii f. duciouxii (Dode) Gilmour, is an ornamental arbor plant. Its roots, leaves, and flowers have long been used for medicinal purposes in China. During July 2010, severe outbreaks of leaf spot disease on this plant occurred in Kunming, Yunnan Province. The disease incidence was greater than 90%. The symptoms on leaves began as dark brown lesions surrounded by chlorotic halos, and later became larger, round or irregular spots with gray to off-white centers surrounded by dark brown margins. Leaf tissues (3 × 3 mm), cut from the margins of lesions, were surface disinfected in 0.1% HgCl2 solution for 3 min, rinsed three times in sterile water, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 28°C. The same fungus was consistently isolated from the diseased leaves. Colonies of white-to-dark gray mycelia formed on PDA, and were slightly brown on the underside of the colony. The hyphae were achromatic, branching, septate, and 4.59 (±1.38) μm in diameter on average. Perithecia were brown to black, globose in shape, and 275.9 to 379.3 × 245.3 to 344.8 μm. Asci that formed after 3 to 4 weeks in culture were eight-spored, clavate to cylindrical. The ascospores were fusiform, slightly curved, unicellular and hyaline, and 13.05 to 24.03 × 10.68 to 16.02 μm. PCR amplification was carried out by utilizing universal rDNA-ITS primer pair ITS4/ITS5 (2). Sequencing of the PCR products of DQ1 (GenBank Accession No. JN165746) revealed 99% similarity (100% coverage) with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates (GenBank Accession No. FJ456938.1, No. EU326190.1, No. DQ682572.1, and No. AY423474.1). Phylogenetic analyses (MEGA 4.1) using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm placed the isolate in a well-supported cluster (>90% bootstrap value based on 1,000 replicates) with other C. gloeosporioides isolates. The pathogen was identified as C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. (teleomorph Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld & H. Schrenk) based on the morphological characteristics and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis (1). To confirm pathogenicity, Koch's postulates were performed on detached leaves of C. fargesii f. duciouxii, inoculated with a solution of 1.0 × 106 conidia per ml. Symptoms similar to the original ones started to appear after 10 days, while untreated leaves remained healthy. The inoculation assay used three leaves for untreated and six leaves for treated. The experiments were repeated once. C. gloeosporioides was consistently reisolated from the diseased tissue. C. gloeosporioides is distributed worldwide causing anthracnose on a wide variety of plants (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing leaf spots on C. fargesii f. duciouxii in China.

      References: (1) B. C. Sutton. Page 1 in: Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. CAB International. Wallingford, UK, 1992. (2) T. J. White et al. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 1990. (3) J. Yan et al. Plant Dis. 95:880, 2011.