Persistence of Phenylamide Insensitivity in Pseudoperonospora humuli
- David H. Gent , United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Forage Seed and Cereal Research Unit, and Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis 97331
- Mark E. Nelson
- Gary G. Grove , Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Prosser 99350
Downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora humuli, is an important disease of hop in most production regions in the northern hemisphere. Insensitivity to phenylamide fungicides was detected in isolates of P. humuli in production regions in Oregon and Idaho in 1992, and these fungicides since have been used on a limited basis. In this study, the prevalence of phenylamide insensitivity among isolates of P. humuli collected from 2005 to 2007 in the northwestern United States was quantified using a leaf disk assay with a discriminating dose (25 μg/ml) of either metalaxyl or mefenoxam with inoculum derived from 201 systemically infected diseased shoots (basal spikes) collected from 6, 10, and 11 hop yards in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, respectively. A subset of 47 basal spike isolates and 42 monosporic isolates collected from two yards in Idaho and nine yards in Oregon during 2006 and 2007 were assayed using a dilution series of metalaxyl to determine the effective dose that inhibited 50% of the incidence of sporulation (ED50). Insensitivity to mefenoxam was detected in 31 of 74 (41.9%) basal spikes collected from 13 hop yards. Insensitivity to the related compound metalaxyl was detected in 52 of 80 (65%) spikes collected from nine hop yards, including four hop yards in Washington. Log ED50 values ranged from –2.25 to 2.67 for basal spike isolates and –2.27 to 2.98 for monosporic isolates and had a similar distribution. Log ED50 values for monosporic isolates and entire basal spike isolates were significantly associated. However, the slope of the regression line was less than 1, indicating that the log ED50 values obtained from entire basal spike isolates were greater than the corresponding log ED50 values obtained from a monosporic isolate obtained from that spike. This research suggests that insensitivity to phenylamide fungicides is a stable phenotype in P. humuli. Management of downy mildew should rely on measures other than these fungicides in yards or regions where phenylamide insensitivity is prevalent, which is now known to include certain hop yards in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.