Information for Authors

  1. General Information
  2. Article Publication Charges
  3. Preparing the Manuscript for Submission
  4. How to Submit an Article
  5. Post-acceptance
  6. Policies

1. General Information

Manuscript Submission

To be considered for publication, manuscripts for Phytopathology®, Plant Disease, MPMI®, Phytobiomes Journal, Plant Health Progress, and PhytoFrontiers™, must be submitted online using each journal’s ScholarOne Manuscript Central submission system.

The corresponding author must log in or register to use the APS ScholarOne Manuscript Central submission system. Each journal has its own unique author database, so authors that submit to separate APS journals must create a separate profile in each. APS recommends that all authors have an ORCID I.D., from the free online service which distinguishes researchers by providing their unique identification profile for readers online. You may add your ORCID I.D. to your APS ScholarOne Manuscript Central profiles at any time.

Selecting an APS Journal for your Manuscript

Each APS journal offers topic areas serving specific scientific communities. Each journal is managed by a separate editorial board, with oversight from the APS Publications Board. There is some overlap of scope among APS journals. After review of your manuscript, the editor may recommend your paper be transferred to another APS journal based on your paper’s content. You will be notified of this recommendation and may choose to accept or reject the transfer. If you accept, you will not need to resubmit the manuscript. Please read the APS Journal Scope Statements to determine the appropriate journal for your manuscript.

Journal Specific Information

In addition to shared submission guidelines, each journal has its own submission instructions where authors may learn journal-specific information:

Questions

All pre-submission or general editorial questions should be directed to each journal's Editor-in-Chief or Staff Technical Editor assigned to the journal in question.

2. Article Publication Charges*

Because of the high cost of publishing, payment of Article Publication Charges are mandatory. Fees are set by the governing council of The American Phytopathological Society.

Member discount rates apply only if the corresponding author has a current membership, which must be maintained until after payment for publication. To help authors in developing economies, APS offers a discounted membership dues rate (see list of countries at https://www.apsnet.org/members/community/join/Pages/countries.aspx). New members can join online if they reside in one of these countries by following the instructions listed at https://www.apsnet.org/members/community/join/Pages/DEDiscount.aspx.

Open Access

APS supports open access and offers authors a choice of options shown below. Some article types are made freely available without any additional fees.

Publication Fee Waivers Policy for Authors from Low Income Countries

Eligibility

Open Access publication fees are usually covered by the funders or research institutions, not by individual researchers. These institutions should be the first source to pay publication fees. If the publication fees are not covered by the funders or institutions, we consider individual waiver requests for articles in the following journals: MPMI, Phytobiomes Journal, and PhytoFrontiers™. Requests are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. For waiver considerations, the corresponding author must reside in one of the World Bank lists of low-income countries for full waiver or lower-middle income countries for partial waiver.

Because only a limited number of complete or partial waivers are available, authors must apply for a waiver in advance and include a detailed cover letter. Requests must be made before the submission process to allow APS to determine if funds are available by sending an e-mail to APS Publications. Please reference the journal you are submitting to. Requests made during the review process or after acceptance will not be eligible for waiver consideration. Only the journals listed here permit requests for fee waivers: MPMI, Phytobiomes Journal, and PhytoFrontiers™.

Article Publication Charges Figures and Illustration Charges e-Xtras
Supplementary
Online Materials
Open Access
Phytopathology

Research, Short Communication, Letter to the Editor, and Meeting Review articles.

APS Member rates: $85 per page for first six published pages and $135 for each page thereafter

Nonmember rates: $200 per page

Optional:

$3,150 (member) / $3,300 (nonmember) CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND License. Includes first 12 pages and B&W figure fees.

All Authors:

Figures submitted in color appear in color online at no additional cost.

Figures (photos, line drawings and illustrations): $48 each. Authors who wish to publish figures in color in the printed journal will be charged $455 for each figure that appears in color in the printed journal.

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

Plant Disease

Research, Special Report, Short Communication, Letter to the Editor, and Meeting Review articles.

APS Member rates: $85 per page for first six published pages and $135 for each page thereafter

Nonmember rates: $200 per page

Optional:

$3,150 (member) / $3,300 (nonmember) CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND License. Includes first 12 pages and B&W figure fees.

All Authors:

Figures submitted in color appear in color online at no additional cost.

Figures (photos, line drawings and illustrations): $48 each. Authors who wish to publish figures in color in the printed journal will be charged $455 for each figure that appears in color in the printed journal.

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

Plant Disease Features

No APCs for the first 12 published pages (up to 25 double-spaced manuscript pages); $200 for each published page thereafter.

Made freely available to readers:

No Additional Fee

Figures submitted in color appear in color online. Up to 12 color figures are published in color in the printed journal at no cost, and all black and white figures are free. Features authors who wish to publish additional figures in color in the printed journal will be charged $455 for each additional figure that appears in color in the printed journal.

No charge

Plant Disease Notes

APS Member rate: $488 per submission

Nonmember rate: $615 per submission

Made freely available to readers:

No Additional Fee

$3,150 (member) / $3,300 (nonmember) CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND License.

Not available

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

MPMI

IS-MPMI/APS Member rates: $3,150 for first 12 published pages, $135 for each page thereafter.

Nonmember rate: $3,300 for first 12 published pages, $200 for each page thereafter.

Short Communication articles

$1,600 ($1,500 members) for first six pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Letter to the Editor articles

$750 ($700 members) for first three pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Current Review articles

$3,300 ($3,150 members) for first 12 pages; $200 ($135 members) per page thereafter.

Interactions Review articles

$3,300 ($3,150 members) for first 12 pages; $200 ($135 members) per page thereafter.

$1,600 (If invited by EiC) for first 12 pages; $200 ($135 members) per page thereafter.

Immediate Open Access: No Additional Fee

Authors select CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND or CC0 License at submission

All Authors: Included

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

Plant Health Progress

Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Diagnostic Guides, Plant Health Management, Short Communication, and Survey Articles.

APS Member rate: $85 per page for first six published pages and $135 for each page thereafter

Nonmember rate: $200 per page

Plant Health Briefs

3 page maximum

APS Member rate: $488 per submission, $135 each additional page

Nonmember rate: $615 per submission, $200 each additional page

Optional:

$3,150 (member) / $3,300 (nonmember) CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND License. Includes first 12 pages and figure fees.

Recovery Plans are required to be published with Open Access.

PDF only: $2,900

PDF plus full-text: The price follows the same fee structure as all other open-access Plant Health Progress articles.

All Authors: $48 each

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

Phytobiomes Journal

$2,600 ($2,400 members) for first 12 published pages, $200 for each page thereafter.

Short Communication articles

$1,600 ($1,500 members) for first six pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Letter to the Editor articles

$750 ($700 members) for first three pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Immediate Open Access: No Additional Fee

Authors may select CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND or CC0 License at submission

All Authors: Included

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded

PhytoFrontiers™

Research, Reviews, Technical Advances, Perspectives, Meeting Reviews, and Mini-Reviews.

APS Member rate:

$2,000 for first 12 published pages, $135 for each page thereafter.

Nonmember rate: $2,400 for first 12 published pages, $200 for each page thereafter.

Short Communication articles

$1,650 ($1,550 members) for first six pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Resource Announcements

$1,500 ($1,350 members) for first four pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Letter to the Editor articles

$750 ($700 members) for first three pages, $200 per page thereafter.

Immediate Open Access: No Additional Fee

Authors select CC BY or CC BY-NC-ND or CC0 License at submission

All Authors: Included

Tables, figures, lists, videos, or other files: $75 per file uploaded. No charge for supplementary materials in Resource Announcements.

*Publication fees apply to accepted manuscripts only. To receive the member rate, the corresponding author must be an APS member, and membership must be maintained until after payment for publication.

3. Preparing the Manuscript for Submission

New for all journals

Authors have the option to upload a single PDF for initial submission. Designate the PDF as the main document in the file upload step. Initial submission of manuscript requires line numbered pages, 8.5 by 11 inches, double-spaced, for all text, including tables and captions.

Checklist for Manuscript Submissions (PDF)

Organization of Materials

Research Manuscripts

Major sections after the introductory statements are Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, and the optional Author-Recommended Internet Resources. (MPMI uses this order: Results, Discussion, Materials and Methods, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited.) Abstracts are limited to 250 words in one paragraph.

General techniques and methods are described in Materials and Methods; and brief descriptions of results of experiments and trials are given in Results. Subheadings may be used, but avoid excessive fragmentation of the text. Footnotes to the text are not permitted. Please refer to published articles for standard formatting of heads and subheads.

Plant Health Progress articles can be subdivided using the above headings or alternatively can use short clauses that are specifically descriptive of the experiments conducted and their outcomes.

Public Summaries are allowed in Plant Disease and PHP.

Review and Feature Manuscripts

Authors may use headings of their choice and are not confined to the section heads used in Research Manuscripts.

Figure Guidelines

To publish the figures in your article with the highest quality, it is important to submit digital art that conforms to the appropriate resolution, size, and file format. Doing so will help to avoid delays in publication and maximize the quality of images.

General Information
  • All figures are provided as separate files, which will be uploaded separately during final submission. Do not submit figure files embedded in the main document in the final submission.
  • All figures are numbered according to its sequence in the text. All figures must have captions.
  • Do not include figure numbers, captions, or author names as part of the figure.
  • Captions should follow tables in the main document.
  • When uploading a figure file to Manuscript Central, make sure to copy and paste the figure caption into the caption field.
  • For multi-panel figures, the file must contain all data in one file. Composite figures must be submitted preassembled. Label identifications should appear in 14 pt Helvetica or Arial font in bold. If other labeling is included in your figure files, please make sure it will appear in a minimum size of 6pt type, with 9pt preferred, maintaining the same font for all figures submitted with your manuscript.
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns in each label.
  • Scale bars should be inserted to indicate magnification.
  • Photographic images should be clear and of high quality, cropped at right angles.
File Specifications
  • Size: Figures should be sized at the final production size/resolution when possible.
    • 1 column: 3.25 inches (85 mm) Minimum 1,050 pixels wide
    • 2 column: 7 inches (178 mm) Minimum 2,100 pixels wide
    • The maximum depth of a figure is 9.7 inches (246 mm)
    • Minimum resolution: 300 dpi
  • Format: Figure file formats accepted: .tif, .jpg, or .eps are preferred. When saving TIFF files, use only LZW compression; do not use JPEG compression. All images must be flattened, layered images are not supported. If images are submitted in color, they should be submitted in RGB format.
  • If high-resolution image files cannot be provided in the formats listed above, original image files generated with MS Office programs (such as Word, PowerPoint, or Excel) can be submitted.
  • High-quality PDFs are also acceptable, but note that when authors use this format Manuscript Central will not display the caption under the figure, so authors will need to provide all their figure captions in a list at the end of their manuscript or include the caption in the PDF containing the figure prior to uploading.
Graphs and Line Drawings
  • Graphs should be “boxed” with tic marks on axes as needed. Use solid black or white or hatch or stripe patterns in bar graphs.
  • Line thicknesses and symbol sizes should be sufficient to allow for reproduction.
  • Only standard symbols can be reproduced in captions (such as boxes, circles, triangles). If necessary, please provide a key to any symbols as part of the figure, if other non-standard symbols are present.
  • Resolution requirements for line art or figures with text should be double the resolution listed above for reproduction with maximum clarity (approximately 2,000 pixels for a one column image or 4,000 for a two column image).

Article Publication Charges

If you have questions, please contact Carol Duling.

Tables

Tables are used to present precise numerical data that show comparisons or interrelationships. Tables should be intelligible without reference to the text or another table. Do not repeat data in the text that are given in a table or figure.

  • Cite tables in numeric order in the manuscript.
  • Titles should summarize the information presented in the table without repeating the column headings. Nonessential details should be omitted, but titles should include enough information to be self-explanatory.
  • Column headings should be brief. The minimum number of columns in a table is two.
  • Abbreviations are acceptable; nonstandard ones should be explained in footnotes. Ditto marks should never be used.
  • Numbers should be rounded to significant digits.
  • Vertical and horizontal rules are not allowed in data fields.
  • Footnotes are designated with superscript lowercase letters. Use “a, b,” etc. if mean separation letters do not appear in the data fields; otherwise use letters from the end of the alphabet, ending with “z” for the last footnote.
  • Tables must be submitted in text format; tables submitted as images are not acceptable.
  • Tables should be submitted on numbered pages after the Literature Cited section.
  • Tables must be created in portrait orientation.

e-Xtras

APS offers cost-effective online article enhancements, called e-Xtras, designed to supplement articles. The presence of e-Xtras is noted by a logo and footnote on the first page of the printed article, with the materials themselves available only online.

Supplementary materials can consist of tables, figures, videos, lists, or external links. When you upload your files via Manuscript Central, e-Xtras should be uploaded with the e-Xtra file designation. You may upload a single PDF for this file designation. Files such as movies or large .xlsx files will need to be uploaded as separate files as they cannot be included in the single PDF. Acceptable file formats are .pdf, .jpg, .tif, .eps, .docx, .xlsx. PowerPoint files are acceptable if no other format is available. Videos should be submitted as .avi, .mpg or .mov formats. These e-Xtras may be referenced within the manuscript, and are intended to be supplemental in nature and not necessary to the understanding of the published article.

Article Publication Charges

Literature Cited and References

Guidelines for citing in text.

Use the author-year method of citing publications. For example, “Various investigators (Davis et al. 2015; Smith 1999; Smith and Jones 2022; Smith et al. 2010, 2012a, b; Williams 2021) have reported similar findings.” List citations in alphabetical order by authors’ surnames. When citing multiple works by the same author, list articles by one author before those by multiple authors. Determine the sequence by alphabetizing the first author’s surname and subsequent authors’ surnames, by the year of publication (most recent last in the order), and if necessary, by the page numbers of articles published in the same journal.

Guidelines for reference list.

List all references in alphabetical order by authors’ surnames. Single-author works should be listed before works with multiple authors. Works by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically. Always cite the original source of publication, whether print or online. Italicize Latin binomials, capitalize German nouns, and insert diacritical marks. List specific pages of books. Refer to the BIOSIS List of Serials for accepted abbreviations of journal names. Do not abbreviate one-word titles of journals. Double-check the accuracy of title abbreviations, page and volume numbers, and dates, and check that each reference is cited in text.

Only references generally available through libraries, online open-access journals and pre-print archives should be listed in Literature Cited. Preprints should be cited as specified by the preprint archive including the relevant DOI. If a work cited is in preparation, submitted but not accepted for publication, or not readily available in libraries, cite the work in parentheses in the text, e.g., (J. Jones, unpublished data) or (J. Jones, personal communication), not in Literature Cited. All authors must be listed. Authors must obtain written permission from the person(s) cited as the source of the unpublished information, and a copy of the letter from the person supplying information must be included when submitting a manuscript. Include the names of all authors in the parenthetical citation. To cite an article as “in press,” you must have a letter of acceptance from a journal or book editor or have a copy of the galley proof for book chapters, bulletins, etc. Avoid excessive reference to unpublished information.

Software.

Software used should be treated as a proprietary material or apparatus. This applies to both commercial and freely-available software. Give the manufacturer or developer name in parentheses. Software such as that produced by SAS should not be cited in literature citations. All version numbers of all software used should be reported as well as the settings used.

Custom made scripts or programs should be made available as supplementary files on the journal website or on a public repository. Although exemptions can be given if necessary, our general policy is that custom written scripts and programs should be made freely available for readers to download. Sufficient documentation, including instructions for compilation (where appropriate) as well as typical configuration and input files should be provided.

Databases.

Accession numbers cited from GenBank, EMBL, and other databases for primary nucleotide or amino acid sequence data should be referenced in text, not in Literature Cited. Provide accession numbers that are part of the research as footnotes on the first page or in text. Data must be publicly released upon or before acceptance.

Online publications.

For literature citations of publications available or referenced online that were originally published in traditional print form, the original printed version should be cited. Materials originally published online by established sources (the Senior Editor will make the assessment of the online source) should be cited with the aim of permitting readers to locate the source itself. Citation of online articles should include author(s), date, title, publication name or sponsoring organization, and publication number or digital object identifier (doi), if any, e.g., Nadeem, A. 1997. Title of article. Mol. Plant Pathol. doi:/1997/0612nadeem. If information used in text can be found online but is not from an established publication, it should be referenced in text as a personal communication (requiring the same verification from the authors as any other personal communication), e.g., (J. Jones, B. Myers, and P. Johnson, personal communication). Online software, programs, models, etc. that are used to analyze data should also be cited only in text by referencing the sponsoring organization and program, e.g., NIH Image is available online from the National Institutes of Health.

Author-Recommended Internet Resources.

The optional section heading Author-Recommended Internet Resources provides an opportunity to highlight relevant websites. The website addresses are reviewed by the Senior Editor. The section is placed after Literature Cited, but websites should not take the place of literature citations.

Statistics

Papers published in APS journals are diverse, and it is not possible to give specific statistical recommendations, guidelines, or rules that can apply to all manuscripts. General guidelines and recommendations are given here that are relevant for a large number of situations. Most importantly, describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader to verify the reported results, or be able to conduct the exact same analysis with a new data set. Give details of randomization and blocking, as well as number of replications, blocks, repeated measurements, samples, or observations. Clearly distinguish between true replications and subsamples within a replication/treatment combination; similarly, distinguish between so-called biological and technical replications. Always specify the experimental design. Identify all the experimental factors being tested, and indicate whether they are being considered fixed or random effects. Except for simple procedures (e.g., t tests, one-way analysis of variance, simple linear regression analysis), cite an appropriate and accessible statistical text and indicate the computer software used. It is not sufficient to just mention the name of a large and multifaceted software package such as SAS, SPSS, or R. List the specific procedure or package used (e.g., PROC MIXED in SAS, or the lme4 package in R). For specialized applications, describe relevant options selected for these procedures. In general, statistical techniques should be described in the Materials and Methods. For complex analyses, it is may be necessary to give snippets of software code in an appendix or in an e-Xtra. Except for calculating means and variances, do not use Excel for statistical analyses (McCullough and Heiser 2008).

The statistical methods used for analyzing data should be chosen according to the type of random (response) variable being measured or assessed (e.g., disease incidence, severity, counts, ordinal ratings), and the type of factors being investigated (fixed or random effects, qualitative or quantitative). For continuous response variables, such as yield or disease severity (proportion of the surface area diseased), parametric methods, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear mixed models, are appropriate, although nonparametric methods can also be used. However, transformations are usually needed for disease severity with parametric analyses, since the variance is a function of the mean. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a non-identify link function can also be used. For binary observations, proportions out of a total of n observations (e.g., disease incidence), and counts (e.g., number of lesions or number of spores), parametric methods such as linear mixed models can be used only if the data are properly transformed; preferably, GLMMs can be used with an appropriate selection of the discrete distribution (e.g., binomial, Poisson, negative binomial) and link function. Model fits should be evaluated through the residual plots to confirm that a reasonable model and data transformation (or link function) are being used. Schabenberger and Pierce (2002) provides details on parametric data analyses. When experimental factors are being analyzed as random effects, software designed for mixed models must be used.

For ordinal measurements (e.g., disease rating on a 0 to 3 scale designating the ordinal degree of symptoms), nonparametric methods based on ranks should generally be used for hypothesis testing. See Shah and Madden (2004) for recommendations on the treatment of ordinal data. As an alternative, parametric proportional-odds models may be used for ordinal data, if there are sufficiently large numbers of observations for each experimental unit. If ordinal rating scores are used for ranges of disease severity (e.g., Horsfall-Barratt [where, for instance, a “2” corresponds to a severity range from 3 to 6%, and a “3” corresponds to a range of 6 to 12%]), each score should be converted to the midpoint of the corresponding disease severity range prior to use of a parametric analytical technique.

Avoid use of arbitrary significance-level (P) cut-offs, such as “significant or not significant at P = 0.05.” Instead, give the achieved significance level for statistical tests (e.g., F was significant at P = 0.025, or P < 0.001 for very small probabilities). In general, do not rely solely on hypothesis tests; rather, estimation of means, medians, mean differences, or other contrasts, with appropriate measure of variability (uncertainty), is preferred. When means (or medians) are followed by ± x, indicate whether x refers to the standard deviation, standard error, or half the confidence interval; error bars in graphs should similarly be defined. For large-scale studies, with hundreds or thousands of treatments, it may not be practical to show all estimated means or contrasts; in this case, presented results could be limited to P values or related summary statistics (this will depend on the study).

For Bayesian analysis, always describe the prior distributions chosen for all the parameters (including the variance and covariance parameters) and the distribution (likelihood) used for the response variable. Graphical presentation of posterior distributions for the parameters is recommended. At a minimum, summary statistics for the location and dispersion of the posterior distributions should be given in tabular form. When bootstrapping methods are utilized in analysis, details of the bootstrap method should be given, such as whether parametric or nonparametric techniques are being used.

For studies with multiple treatments, avoid blindly utilizing multiple-comparison procedures, where all possible pairwise contrasts of means are determined. In many cases, it is preferable to calculate only the contrasts (e.g., pairwise differences) of means of interest, based on hypotheses developed before the data collection. When multiple comparison procedures are utilized, the specific procedure should be clearly indicated; Duncan’s multiple range test should not be used. When the effects of a quantitative variable (e.g., temperature) are studied, it is preferable to use regression analysis or mixed models with continuous (and qualitative) factors instead of methods developed solely for a nonordered qualitative factor.

Wherever possible, researchers should consult with a statistician before designing an experiment and when analyzing the results.

General Editorial Style

Most of the style guides mentioned have good discussions of English, grammar, and style. Other good general references are The Chicago Manual of Style (University of Chicago Press 2010) and Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (Merriam-Webster 2003).

Papers will be rejected prior to review if the quality of English is insufficient to enable peer review. For those who need assistance, APS has partnered with Charlesworth Author Services, which offers English academic editing and proofreading services. Charlesworth also provides translation services and ensures that manuscripts effectively and accurately communicate the science in correct English. Charlesworth turnaround times range from two to six days, depending on author preference. Receive 10 percent off all services through this link: https://www.cwauthors.com/aps.

Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments may be included with peer-reviewed articles after the text and before the "Literature Cited." Authors may acknowledge any assistance associated with the work reported or the development of the manuscript.

Authors. List all authors by their full names, e.g., Jane E. Doe, (unless the author uses initials only) and provide their affiliation including title, department, institution, or company, and location including any city, state or province, and postal code information.

Quick Guide to APS Editorial Style

(see text of Instructions for more complete references)

Numbers

  • Numerals for measurements, including ad hoc measurements such as drops, wells.
  • Commas in numerals of 4 digits or more (except for digits used as designations).
  • Zero in front of decimal points.
  • In lists where one item is multidigit, use numerals throughout.
  • Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence (if number is spelled out, unit of measure also should be spelled out).
  • -fold: threefold, manyfold, 10-fold.
  • Ranges: use “to” rather than “–,” except in tables.

Measurements

  • Use units of the Système International d’Unités (SI units).
  • Do not abbreviate measurements in titles.
  • Time: second (s), minute (min), hour (h), day, week, month, year.
  • Volume: liter (spell out), but ml, µl, etc.
  • Use the degree symbol with temperature (70°C).

Binomials and trinomials

All taxa are italicized. In trinomials, always spell out species, e.g., X. campestris pv. campestris.

Molecular weight and Daltons

Correct: The molecular weight of protein x is 54,000. The molecular mass of protein x is 54,000 Da (or 54 kDa).

Incorrect: The molecular weight of protein x is 54,000 Da (or 54 kDa).

Enumeration

Use (i), (ii), (iii), (iv).

Prefixes and suffixes

Generally should be closed up (e.g., postinfection, loopsful), even in nonstandard constructions; see dictionary or style manuals for exceptions.

Compound words

When two words are used as adjectives preceding a noun, as a rule they are hyphenated. If uncertain, consult the dictionary or style manuals

Abbreviations

Consult the list below for the standard abbreviations for common terms. Authors may coin abbreviations. Limit the use of coined abbreviations to terms used frequently and unusually long terms. Spell out the term and place the abbreviation in parentheses at first use; use the abbreviation after that, including at the beginning of sentences.

Problem abbreviations and terms

  • aa—amino acids
  • Carborundum—capitalize
  • Casamino Acids
  • Celite
  • CFU—colony-forming units, do not spell out if preceded by a numeral
  • cheesecloth—one word
  • chi-square test or Χ2
  • cis, trans—italicize
  • cM—centimorgan, spell out at first use
  • Coomassie brilliant blue
  • df—degrees of freedom, do not spell out if preceded by a numeral
  • et al., not et al.
  • GLM—general linear model
  • gram negative, gram positive
  • Gram stain
  • LB broth—Luria-Bertani broth
  • LR white resin
  • MAb—monoclonal antibody
  • P—probability, do not spell out
  • Parafilm—capitalize
  • Petri dish
  • phytoplasma, not MLO or mycoplasmalike organism
  • potato dextrose agar, no hyphen
  • ppm—parts per million
  • Rf—retardation factor
  • V8 juice agar—no hyphen

Nomenclature and Language

Although scientific language dealing with measurements, specialized vocabulary, and nomenclature is always in flux, manuscripts should be prepared with internal consistency and close attention to current standards of usage. Where legitimate differences in language and nomenclature exist, the preferences of authors will be respected. Following is a brief survey of guidelines and references that authors can consult as they prepare manuscripts, along with many APS Publications Board policies that apply to usage (a quick guide to APS editorial style is provided).

Although APS publications do not generally follow them for copyediting style, The ACS Style Guide (Dodd 1997) or ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Publications Handbook and Style Manual (1998) are useful references. The Scientific Style and Format (CBE Style Manual Committee 1994) by the Council of Biology Editors provides background on the origins of scientific terms and the governing bodies that rule on current nomenclature in a given field.

Abbreviations. Avoid nonstandard abbreviations in text. These may be used in tables. Authors should avoid coining abbreviations except for extraordinarily long terms or complex concepts used very frequently in the article. Spell out the term and place the abbreviation in parentheses at first use.

Apparatus and materials. Names of unusual proprietary materials and special apparatus should be followed by the manufacturer’s name and location in parentheses (e.g., manufacturer, city and U.S. state, or city and country if outside the United States). It is only necessary to cite these materials by specific name if the work cannot otherwise be replicated. When necessary, trade names may be used and should be capitalized. Trademark or copyright symbols should not be used and will be deleted before publication.

Chemicals, chemistry, and biochemistry terms. The ACS Style Guide (Dodd 1997) describes conventions in chemistry and biochemistry. The Merck Index (O’Neil 2006) and Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary (Lewis 2007) are good sources for spellings of chemical terms. List fungicides and other pesticides by their approved common or generic names. Brand names and formulations should be included in parentheses when a chemical is first mentioned. See the current Farm Chemicals Handbook (Meister Publishing Co.) or the most recent edition of Acceptable Common Names and Chemical Names for the Ingredient Statement on Pesticide Labels (Environmental Protection Agency. Use the chemical name if a common name is not available.

Common names of plant diseases. For common names of plant diseases, the list developed by the APS Committee on Standardization of Common Names for Plant Diseases should be used.

Cultures. Indicate the source of cultures. Include culture designations obtained from or deposited in recognized collections. Authors are required to deposit voucher cultures and specimens at recognized institutions and to provide accessions numbers in the text. Papers are accepted on the condition that cultures, plasmids and similar materials will be available for distribution to all qualified members of the scientific community, either directly from the investigator or by deposit in national or international collections.

Enzymes. Use the enzyme names recommended in the latest issue of Enzyme Nomenclature (International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1992). Give the number (classification) of the enzyme at its first use (e.g., EC 1.1.75.6).

Genetics. Rieger et al. (1991), Stenesh (1989), and King et al. (2006) are good specialized genetics and molecular biology dictionaries.

Germplasm screening. APS journals do not serve as an archive for reports that consist solely of lists of cultivars or germplasm accessions and their reactions. When the results of large germplasm screenings are reported, data may be summarized and accessions grouped for presentation. Means and appropriate statistics should be calculated and presented in lieu of long lists of identical data for numerous individual accessions.

Names of Organisms. Scientific names should be included for all organisms that are subjects of the research. Use the scientific name of the principal host in the introduction and the abstract. After first use of binomials, the name can be written by abbreviating the genus, e.g., P. cactorum. For trinomials, the name can be written by abbreviating the genus name and spelling out the specific epithet and subspecific epithet, e.g., P. graminis f. sp. tritici.

Plant Disease and Plant Health Progress: Authorities for Latin binomials. Citations of authorities for Latin binomial names must be provided at first mention in the text of the primary hosts and pathogens discussed. Citations of authorities for other organisms mentioned are optional but appropriate for manuscripts dealing with taxonomy or nomenclature or for unfamiliar binomials.

Phytopathology and MPMI: Authorities for Latin binomials. Citation of authorities for Latin binomial names is optional but appropriate for manuscripts dealing with taxonomy or nomenclature or for organisms with unfamiliar binomials. When used, authorities should be provided at first mention of the organism only.

Bacteria. Spellings should be based on Bergey’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology (Garrity and Boone 2001), the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Skerman et al. 1989), or the lists of species published in the International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology (IJSB). Note that per Bergey’s style, groups below the level of subspecies should be italicized. Where applicable, designate strains. For information on phytoplasmas, see Brown et al. (2007).

Fungi. The preferred source for common and scientific names and authorities of fungi is USDA-ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory Fungal Database. Ainsworth and Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi (Kirk et al. 2008) is another good reference. When new fungal taxa are described, the authors must register their new scientific names and appropriate information to MycoBank. For modern binomials to apply to powdery mildews (Erysiphales), it is suggested that authors check the Erysiphales Database.

Insects. Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms (Bosik 1997) can be used to verify insect names. Include scientific names for important insect vectors.

Plants. The PLANTS Database, Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (http://plants.usda.gov) is a good source for spelling of common and scientific names. Other good sources are Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, PLANTS Databases, and The Plant-Book (Mabberley 1997). Regional floras may be used. Use the term “cultivar” for agronomic and horticultural varieties. Identify the source of cultivars and include plant introduction (PI) numbers when appropriate. The name of a cultivar should be enclosed in single quotation marks at first use.

Viruses. Viruses, agents that cause disease and exhibit particular properties, are distinguished from virus species, a category level into which isolates and strains of a virus are grouped. The two are differentiated by the form in which their names are written: virus species names are written in italics, with only the first letter of the species name and any proper nouns capitalized (e.g., Artichoke Italian latent virus), while virus names are written in Roman type with only proper names capitalized (e.g., artichoke Italian latent virus). The virus species refers only to the taxonomic status of the virus and should not be abbreviated; only the virus name can be abbreviated. Abbreviations should follow the first use of the virus name, as long as that virus name is used at least three times in the text of a manuscript. That is, the use of abbreviations for virus names does not negate the normal rule for use of abbreviations per se. A sentence such as "Tomato is often infected by Tobacco mosaic virus in the genus Tobamovirus" is incorrect. The taxonomic entity, Tobacco mosaic virus, cannot infect anything, because this is a property of the physical entity, tobacco mosaic virus. The two concepts should be kept distinct from one another - the infection by the concrete entity TMV, and the taxonomic status of the abstract entity Tobacco mosaic virus. They can co-exist in the same sentence by referring to tobacco mosaic virus (the infectious entity) as a member of the genus Tobamovirus. Real things can be members of abstract classification structures.” A more appropriate presentation of the information would be “Tobacco mosaic virus is a member of the genus Tobamovirus. Tomato is often infected by tobacco mosaic virus.”

For more information on the correct spelling of virus and species names please also refer to https://talk.ictvonline.org/information/w/faq/386/how-to-write-virus-species-and-other-taxa-names.

Nucleic acid sequences. Submit new nucleic acid sequences for the primary organism(s) of interest to GenBank or a similar public database and report accession numbers. Deposit sequence alignments in TreeBASE or in a similar public database and report accession numbers. Accession numbers cited from GenBank, EMBL, and other databases for primary nucleotide or amino acid sequence data should be referenced in text, not in Literature Cited, and the database to which the accession number refers should be clearly specified. Provide accession numbers that are generated in the study as footnotes on the first page and in the text. Data must be publicly released upon or before acceptance.

AFLP, SSR, or similar types of analysis. Data files used in the analysis of AFLP, SSR, or SNP markers must be provided as supplementary files on the journal website or on a public repository like figshare or dryad and made available for readers to download. The format should be the same used for data analysis and run parameters for the analysis provided. Data must be publicly released upon or before acceptance.

Large-scale data sets. APS Journals encourage the publication of papers using genome-wide approaches to address hypotheses in plant pathology. Authors are expected to submit raw data (fastq files) and processed data (calculation of RPKM/FPKM values) from RNA-Seq experiments to the appropriate public database, such as EMBL-EBI via ArrayExpress or the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). For genome assemblies and annotations, raw data (fastq) and processed data (fasta, gff, etc.) should deposited in the appropriate public databases, such as the EBI WGS and Genome databases or the NCBI SRA and Genome databases. Variant call files and other genomic diversity data should be deposited on a public repository like figshare or dryad and made available for readers to download.

PCR. APS Journals follow standardized guidelines for quantitative PCR nomenclature. In particular, the term RT-qPCR is reserved to describe reverse transcription-quantitative PCR for relative gene expression analyses. The term qPCR is reserved to describe quantitative real-time PCR for absolute quantification of DNA (as in fungal biomass measurements between samples).

Instructions to Authors of Resource Announcements

Resource Announcements are brief, peer-reviewed communications describing new, large-scale data sets, sequences, code, mobile apps, culture collections, or other resources available for plant pathogens, plant-microbe interactions, or plant-associated data of interest to the broader community, including teaching guides. Only PhytoFrontiers accepts submissions of Resource Announcements. Please note that they are not expected to contain experimental data or address hypotheses, but they must include a rationale.

  • Resource Announcements are 3-4 pages, including abstract, and are limited to 2 tables and 2 figures. The title of the article should include the word “data” or “resource”.
  • Genomes for newly sequenced species require that the sequenced strain be deposited in a recognized herbarium. Suggested repositories include (see additional suggested repositories at http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories)
  • The resource and accompanying annotation must be accessible at the time of review, and available to reviewers.
  • Description of the isolate sequenced must include how it was obtained, and some validation for this taxonomic description e.g., phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity or host range tests.
  • If the genome is a first for a given organism it must be of good quality. The sequencing method can be either Illumina (or any other next generation sequencing methods) with >50X coverage or a combination of both second and third generation sequencing methods.
  • If the genome is not a first for a given organism, it must be much better in quality than a previously sequenced genome of the same organism (e.g. long-read sequencing assembled in 1/10 less scaffolds than before, etc.). If so, please provide a table to compare improved versus the existing genome data.
  • If resource includes a collection of strains (>10 strains for fungi/oomycetes/nematodes; >50 strains for bacteria), good metadata on geographic, host and phenotypic range for reanalysis should be provided.
  • Error rates in long read technologies should be addressed. If Illumina reads were used for error correction, the number of errors corrected should be indicated.
  • The assembly needs to be of good quality. Assembly needs to be carried out using at least 2 contemporary methods best suited for the data type used. This can be decided by the level of completeness of the genomes (N50, BUSCO score) and the percentage of contaminants. If an earlier version of the assembly already exists, the present version needs to be a significantly improved version over the last assembled genome.
  • Citation and version number of software must be provided.
  • Details regarding annotation methods must be specified, and annotations must be released. If there is an earlier version of annotation available, the annotations must be mapped to the present version.
Type of resource Suggested repositories
Nucleic acid sequence
Protein sequence
Plant phenome, phenotypic and environmental data, code, general repositories

Resource Announcements are published at an APC of $1,275 for four or fewer pages, and are made freely available to readers.

Instructions to Authors of Diagnostic Assay Validation Papers

Publications presenting new or adapted diagnostic tests or assays should clearly state the purpose for which the assay is developed, e.g., surveillance both pre- and post- detection, presumptive identifications, confirmatory diagnostics, regulatory clearance of plant products including seed, germplasm or plants, research, etc.

  • Research manuscripts should give focus to assay validation parameters and explicitly state the purpose of the assay, assay fitness for the purpose, and which of the following validation parameters were addressed and how: analytical specificity, diagnostic specificity, analytical sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. Validation parameters should be discussed in the body of the manuscript and reviewed in the discussion section. The validation parameters listed above should be explicitly addressed including those that were not addressed and why.

4. How to Submit an Article

ScholarOne Manuscripts (Manuscript Central)

Plant Disease, Phytopathology®, MPMI®, Phytobiomes Journal, Plant Health Progress and PhytoFrontiers™, require that all peer-reviewed manuscripts be submitted electronically via an Internet service called Manuscript Central. Electronic submission speeds the handling of your manuscript and allows you to monitor its status at any time during the review process. Submission implies nonsubmission elsewhere and if accepted, no publication elsewhere in the same form without consent.

Add your ORCID iD

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID®) is a non-profit organization dedicated to solving the long-standing name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication by creating a central registry of unique identifiers for individual researchers and an open, transparent linking mechanism between ORCID and other current author identifier schemes. APS recommends authors create or associate their existing ORCID record with their profile in Manuscript Central. If you do, we will automatically link your online article to your ORCID record. An ORCID record is required for the submitting author, and corresponding author of a paper. To learn more about ORCID, please visit http://orcid.org/content/initiative.

First-time Manuscript Central users must create an account. Your account is specific to that journal, you will have to create another account in order to submit to a different journal. Follow the onscreen directions to submit your manuscript. A single PDF may be uploaded for initial submission; upon acceptance, the text (file designation: main document) file must be in Word, Rich Text, LaTex, or other common word processing format. Figures should be submitted in .tif, .eps, or .jpg format, with captions entered into Manuscript Central. Line drawings and composite figures generated in an MS Office program can be submitted in the original format if they conform to the file specifications.

Copyright/License Options. Authors have the choice of the Copyright/License Options shown below. You will be asked to choose one of the options below during the manuscript submission process.

Phytopathology®, Plant Disease, and Plant Health Progress

APS Copyright Public Domain Creative Commons Other

This option assigns copyright to The American Phytopathological Society, in all forms and media. Authors are encouraged but not required to transfer copyright of their work to APS, This allows authors to retain rights to use their work for their own purposes, and APS to maintain the integrity of the work’s original publication on the author’s behalf.

These articles are in public domain and not copyrightable. Authors who work for USA government agencies are required to select this option. Only select this option if you are required to do so. These articles may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source.

CC BY-NC-ND: This creative commons license allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit the source, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

CC BY: This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.

This option is available for authors working for governments of certain commonwealth countries that may own the copyright for works created by government employees.

Phytobiomes Journal

APS Copyright/Open Access Public Domain Creative Commons Other

This option assigns copyright to The American Phytopathological Society, in all forms and media. You and other users may share this article for noncommercial purposes as long as proper credit and citation is given, and you provide a link to the original source article. You may not change or distribute a modified version of the article and you may not restrict or imply any legal terms or ownership or license.

These articles are in public domain and not copyrightable. Authors who work for USA government agencies are required to select this option. Only select this option if you are required to do so. These articles may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source.

CC BY-NC-ND: This creative commons license allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit the source, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

CC BY: This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.

CC0: "No Rights Reserved" license by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.

This option is available for authors working for governments of certain commonwealth countries that may own the copyright for works created by government employees.

MPMI and PhytoFrontiers™ License Options

Authors have the choice of the following Copyright/License Options:

CC BY-NC-ND: This creative commons license allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit the source, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

CC BY: This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.

CC0: "No Rights Reserved" license by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.

A cover letter must also be included with the submission, which should briefly (3-5 sentences) explain the significance of the research.

Plant Disease and PHP allow public summaries, which are published in electronic format only, accessible from a link from the online table of contents. A public summary should be the same length as an abstract but differ in content. It should set out the question or problem being investigated and go on to state how the findings of the study can be used to answer the question or solve the problem. The intended audience includes farmers, certified crop advisors and pesticide applicators, agricultural chemical and seed dealers, county extension personnel, and scientists outside the discipline of plant pathology. A public summary should be written in standard English and be comprehensible to readers without specialized knowledge of plant pathology. When submitting your manuscript, this text should be uploaded along with the manuscript, choosing Public Summary for the file designation type.

Technical Assistance. Assistance with technical difficulties in submission is available from ScholarOne, Inc., the parent company of Manuscript Central. First, however, click the red “Get Help Now” button in the top right corner of your screen and consult “FAQs” (frequently asked questions) or contact ScholarOne Customer Support by telephone (+1.888.503.1050, option 1; or +1.434.964.4100, option 1).

Editorial Process

Manuscripts will be assigned to an appropriate senior editor by the editor-in-chief. Authors will be notified of this assignment by e-mail. Authors are required to select a minimum of two recommended reviewers to assist the senior editor in obtaining reviews; however, this does not guarantee that these reviewers will be selected. Senior editors will select a minimum or two reviewers with expertise in the subject matter of the manuscript. Reviewers remain anonymous to the authors. When the initial review process is completed (reviews are returned), the author will be contacted by the Senior Editor. Correspondence with authors will be by e-mail.

After a manuscript has been reviewed and returned to the author for revision by the Senior Editor, the author should make the required changes and return the manuscript through Manuscript Central, along with a cover letter responding to the reviewers’ comments. An author receiving reviews and editorial recommendations for revision of a manuscript has 3 months to complete the revision and return it to the editor, again through Manuscript Central. Unless authors have permission from the Senior Editor for a brief delay in revision, manuscripts requiring more than 3 months for revision should be resubmitted as new manuscripts.

The final files submitted to Manuscript Central and accepted by the Senior Editor will be used for processing the manuscript for publication.

Manuscript Transfer

Manuscript transfer enables authors to find the best home for their research and offers a convenient and time saving alternative to resubmitting your manuscript. Articles that are rejected for reasons other than quality may still be candidates for publication in another APS journal. If a manuscript transfer to another APS journal is considered appropriate, the author is presented with a choice to either accept or reject the opportunity to transfer. If the author approves the recommendation to transfer, the manuscript files, reviews, and submission information are automatically transferred to the proposed journal and assigned to a Senior Editor by the Editor-in-Chief of that journal. The Senior Editor will take the previous reviews and comments into account to make their final decision, eliminating the need to re-review and saving time between submission and publication.

5. Post-acceptance

First Look

All APS journals, with the exception of Plant Health Progress, offer a feature called First Look that can make unformatted and unedited manuscripts available online within a few days after acceptance. This means that your paper will be considered published, and citable by its DOI as soon as it is posted online.

Authors are encouraged to publish their newly accepted manuscripts in First Look. Papers that appear as “First Look” articles may be rapidly indexed by PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and other online databases with links back to the “First Look” article before the formatted and edited papers are published.

When you submit a new manuscript, you will be asked, “Do you want your paper published online prior to print?” If you check “yes” and your paper is accepted, you will receive notification to go to “First Look Papers” in your author center. If you select “no”, you will not be able to submit to First Look later.

It is your responsibility to provide a clean version for First Look publication. If you used track changes or inserted comments to the senior editor in the final revision, they should be removed at this point. The paper will not be posted without your final approval.

A statement identifying the paper as a First Look version of the paper will appear on papers posted in First Look.

“This paper has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication but has not yet been copyedited or proofread. The final published version may differ.”

Just Published

After a paper has been processed for publication, the Just Published version will replace the First Look version online. Papers will be removed from Just Published and given page numbers when the article is assigned to an issue.

Article Proofs

Proofs of edited articles are made available to the corresponding author via e-mail. The article page proofs and any e-Xtras accompanying your article online must be reviewed.

Adobe Reader, version 7 or higher, will be needed in order to read and annotate the electronic proofs. If authors do not already have access to Adobe software, a link for downloading a free version of the Adobe Reader can be found in the e-mail accompanying the proofs.

Only typographical and essential factual changes may be made at this stage. Corrections and query responses and the signed copyright form should be returned within 48 hours. All corrections and queries must be indicated in the page proofs using the accepted annotation method. Do not annotate e-Xtra files. When e-Xtras need to be corrected, send either the corrected original file or a pdf of the corrected file.

A statement of publication fees will also be provided. At that time, you have the option to purchase a PDF of your article or order reprints, for all article types except Plant Disease Notes and Resource Announcements.

6. Policies

Conditions for Submission and Scientific Review

Those who submit papers to APS journals should respect the value of the research of their peers by not devaluing authorship. Each author should have made a substantial intellectual contribution to the design, conduct, analysis, and/or interpretation of the study. Each author must approve the final version of the article to be published and be willing to take public responsibility for their contribution to the paper. In addition, the first author and the corresponding author are expected to be able to take public responsibility for the entire paper. Authors are required to disclose any conflict of interest when submitting the manuscript. APS does not resolve disputes between authors.

A manuscript submitted to an APS journal must not be under review and may not be submitted for review by another journal, even in part, while under consideration for publication by APS. APS will not publish a paper that contains data that have been or will be published elsewhere. If a paper is closely related to one or more papers under con­sideration or accepted elsewhere, copies must accompany the manuscript submitted to an APS journal.

Manuscripts are accepted on the condition that all experimental materials, including recombinant plasmids and bacteriophages, microbe strains, and plant variants developed in the course of the research, are expected to make them available for distribution to all qualified members of the scientific community following federal and state guidelines, either directly from the author(s) or by deposit in national or international collections.

The management of the review and the final decision with regard to acceptance reside with the Senior Editors, who are identified on the Editorial Board page for each APS journal. Most manuscripts will be reviewed by two Associate Editors or ad hoc referees. However, the Editor-in-Chief or a Senior Editor may return, without further review, any manuscript deemed unsuitable.

Authors can facilitate review and processing of their manuscripts by reading the author instructions carefully and completing the author submission checklist before submitting their papers.

Plagiarism

APS does not tolerate plagiarism and will implement a two-year submission ban on authors found guilty. Plagiarism is commonly defined as “the representation of the words or ideas of another as one's own in any academic work” (Rutgers University, Academic Integrity Policy, Section 2C). In scientific writing and publishing, plagiarism most often occurs when ideas or key phrases are taken from a literature source and the source is not cited. Copying a sentence from another work and merely replacing a few words in that sentence also is considered plagiarism.

Plagiarism is prohibited because it is dishonest. Authors who do not credit the original sources of ideas and phrases are guilty of stealing the original authors’ scientific contributions. Scientific discoveries and progress build on the previous accomplishments of other scientists. They deserve—and receive—proper recognition when their contributions used in current works are acknowledged with proper citations.

APS journals use the program iThenticate to check submitted manuscripts for plagiarism. Editors evaluate the results of the analysis to determine whether a violation of the APS Publications Ethics Policy has occurred. If authors reuse text from previously published, copyrighted materials, they must cite the original publication to avoid copyright infringement. In the Materials and Methods section of a manuscript, it may be difficult to avoid using wording that is the same as wording used by other writers. In such cases, authors may simply be asked to revise the duplicated passages.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Large Language Models (LLM)

  • The use of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) assisted technology to improve grammar, language, and writing is permitted if the resulting content remains representative of the author’s own original work and does not generate new concepts, results, or perceptions within the manuscript. When using Large Language Models (LLM), or similar generative AI tools such as Open AI ChatGPT, authors must ensure that the content of the manuscript is a description of their own original research, i.e., authorship of all text in an APS publication requires human attribution and oversight.
  • The application of AI in the context of analyzing and classifying data is permitted, and like other tools, the process by which the AI technology was used must be described completely in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. Of course, AI methods such as machine learning, including regression analyses, are sometimes the most appropriate method to achieve experimental objectives.
  • The use of AI-generated image manipulation is not allowed.
  • APS aligns with the COPE position statement that “AI tools cannot meet the requirements for authorship as they cannot take responsibility for the submitted work. As non-legal entities, they cannot assert the presence or absence of conflicts of interest nor manage copyright and license agreements.” It is expected that Authors are solely responsible for the content of their manuscripts.

Funding Acknowledgments

FundRef is an industry-wide initiative to standardize and track the sources of funding for published research. Authors of manuscripts submitted to APS journals are expected to list all sources of funding for the research project at the time of submission. This information is no longer required within the acknowledgments section of the manuscript, if the funder and grant/award numbers are supplied when the manuscript is submitted.

Biosecurity and Select Agents Policies

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) biosecurity policy covers details for screening for research that may constitute misuse of plant pathological methods or potential danger from the improper application of knowledge. In addition, before a report on a discovery of an Agricultural Select Agent can be submitted for publication, the detection of the Select Agent must be reported to USDA APHIS. See the APS Select Agent policy.

Preprints and Advance Communications

Authors are allowed to present and discuss their findings ahead of publication at scientific conferences, on preprint servers (such as arXiv, biorxiv, or PeerJ preprints among others), in public databases, or blogs, wikis, tweets, and other informal communication channels. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other venues. However, abstracts, tweets, blogs, conferences, or personal communications need not be disclosed. Authors may not post the “First Look” reviewed or the final edited version of the published manuscript on any preprint archive, and must link from the preprint archive site to the published manuscript’s abstract posted at the APS journal site once the paper is published.

Repositories Policy

APS Gold Open Access Journals: Phytobiomes Journal, MPMI®, and PhytoFrontiers
  • Authors may deposit any version of their article in an institutional or other repository without restriction.
Phytopathology®, Plant Disease, and Plant Health Progress
  • APS recommends authors post abstracts of their articles in their university archives and link to the articles at the APS journals site.
  • If an author purchases the PDF version of the edited and formatted article PDF from APS for a fee, the PDF may be posted to an author’s own university archive. The archive must cite the source journal and provide a link from the article to the original article abstract on the APS journal website.
  • Unedited and unformatted “First Look” accepted articles may be posted to an author’s own university archive without fee. The archive must cite the source journal and provide a link from the article to the original article abstract on the APS journal website.
  • Posting edited and formatted articles to third-party websites, including preprint servers and ResearchGate is prohibited when APS holds copyright. Only the abstract may be included in the archives of third-party vendors along with a link from the abstract to the article on the APS journals website.

Dissertation Policy

  • Articles may be included in an author’s own dissertation without written permission if the author cites the source journal.

Corrections and Retractions

It is the policy of APS to make only changes to articles after they have been published online under the circumstances outlined below.

Erratum

It is the policy of APS journals to make changes to published files if an error occurs that requires publication of an erratum for that article. An Erratum for any articles published should include a statement by the authors of the original paper that briefly describes any correction(s) resulting from errors or omissions. Any effects on the conclusions of the paper should be noted. The corrected article is not removed from the online journal, but notice of erratum is given. The Erratum is made freely available to all readers and is linked to the corrected article. A $300 fee is charged if these corrections are not a result of the editorial process.

As articles have many stages of publication, the first being First Look, those files are published online until the Just Published article is published. The author will review the manuscript before accepting publication in First Look. No changes to the First Look article are allowed.

For articles published in the Just Published or in a Published issue that require changes, a fee is charged. If changed prior to inclusion in an issue, the term erratum does not apply, but the article is changed to reflect the correction of the errors. If the article has been included in an issue, the term Erratum does apply, and based on the level of changes needed, at the discretion of the publisher, an Erratum Summary may be published in the next available issue. This Erratum Summary will link to the previously published article posted online. If that article was online in PDF form only, the Erratum Summary will appear as the last page of the PDF once the Erratum Summary is published in the current issue’s TOC. Minor errors that do not affect the integrity of the metadata or a reader's ability to understand an article and that do not involve a scientific error or omission will be corrected at the discretion of the Publisher. A fee of $300 is charged to the author for these changes.

Retractions

To protect the integrity of the record, the retracted article is not removed from the online journal, but notice of retraction is given, is made freely available to all readers, and is linked to the retracted article. Articles may be retracted by their author(s) or by the Journal Editor, or on behalf of the Publisher.

If only a small part of an article reports flawed data, and especially if this is the result of genuine error, then the problem is best rectified by a correction or erratum. Retraction should usually be reserved for publications that are so seriously flawed (for whatever reason) misleading (or is redundant or plagiarized) that their findings or conclusions should not be relied upon. Articles should be retracted as soon as possible after the journal editor is convinced that the publication warrants this action. Prompt retraction should minimize the number of researchers who cite the erroneous work, act on its findings or draw incorrect conclusions.

The online abstract is replaced with the retraction comment as the DOI resolves to the abstracts from downstream deposits. The date of the retraction is also listed, under this abstract text. A fee of $265 is charged to the author for these changes.

Please review the COPE retraction guidelines for more information.

Reprints

Following publication of the final version of their paper, corresponding authors may order Reprints and/or PDF files of their articles when they are reviewing their Article Publication Fees.

Published article PDFs may be posted on the author’s personal website or the author page of their institutional website for a fee, ($135) but only the abstract may be posted on third party websites. USDA and NIH employees may post the unedited “First Look” version or the purchased PDF on their institution’s repository sites without charge.

The American Phytopathological Society is a nonprofit organization that invests its publishing surplus in activities which promote and support the science of plant pathology.

Suitability for Publication

Authors are strongly encouraged to have at least one colleague review the manuscript before submitting it for publication. The Editor-in-Chief or Senior Editors may find the content of a submitted paper unsuitable and return the paper to the author without review. Each manuscript receives two simultaneous reviews. Authors may recommend individuals to review a manuscript, and they also may ask that certain individuals not review a manuscript. Additional experts are consulted as necessary to confirm the scientific merit of any part or all of a manuscript, with due consideration for prepublication confidentiality. Each reviewer makes a specific recommendation to the Senior Editor for the manuscript, based on the following applicable aspects:

  • Importance of the research
  • Originality of the work
  • Analysis of previous literature
  • Appropriateness of the approach and experimental design
  • Adequacy of experimental techniques
  • Soundness of conclusions and interpretations
  • Relevance of discussion
  • Clarity of presentation and organization of the article
  • Demonstration of reproducibility

Archiving

Portico logo

The American Phytopathological Society is committed to preserving its electronic content and the need to ensure long term access.

Portico, our digital preservation partner is a service of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. For more information visit portico.org.